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Dr. Kwando


Where were the first African American churches founded? When did Frederick Douglass deliver his first anti-slavery speech? Who de-segregated Major League Baseball? The turbulent history of African Americans unfolds in historical waves, through rights and injustices, migration, inventions and art, protests, legislation, and accomplishments. From the first recorded arrival of Africans in the New World to the death of Rosa Parks, a chronology of events ties history together for the reader, giving a greater sense of the struggle, alienation, and triumph of blacks in America.


​The African American Chronology introduces the student researcher to the most impactful events in African American history, drawing from such categories as: Abolitionism, civil rights, economics, marriage, religion, media, literature, science, crime and war.


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The service of African Americans in defense of the Union during the Civil War required African American nurses, doctors and surgeons to heal those soldiers. In the nation's capital, these brave healthcare workers created a medical infrastructure for African Americans by African Americans. Preeminent surgeon Alexander T. Augusta fought discrimination, visited President Lincoln, testified before Congress and aided the war effort. Washington D.C.'s Freedmen's Hospital was formed to serve the District's growing free African American population, eventually becoming the Howard University Hospital. These physicians would form the National Medical Association, the largest and oldest organization representing African American doctors and patients. Author Heather M. Butts recounts the heroic lives and work of Washington D.C.'s African American medical community during the Civil War.

Heather Butts JD, MPH, MA, is an Integration of Science and Practice (ISP) instructor and faculty advisor of the Part-Time Health Policy Management students at Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health where she teaches bioethics and public health law. 


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